Formulation of the Burkina Faso Country-Programme
Actual Completion Date
Lesson Learned for Cities Alliance Members and Partners
Members and Partners very keen to debate upon priorities on urban development during the formulation process and to further closely work together during the forthcoming implementation phase of the UCPB. A very good role of 'intermediation' played by UN Habitat (with the help of Agence Perspective, a highly qualified local consultancy firm) to open up spaces for dialogue and consultation between all relevant stakeholders. Important to give enough time to the 'formulation phase' in such complex settings
Burkina Faso is a landlocked country located at the centre of the western Africa sub-region, with 6 neighbouring countries and a total area of 274 200 km2. The last 2006 census indicates that its total population is approximately 14 million people. Despite that the percentage of the urban population is one of the lowest in the world (20.2%) it is increasing at a fast pace and is expected to reach 35% by 2026; the growth will mainly be registered in the secondary cities. The main two urban settlements at country level are Ouagadougou, the capital city with 1.5 million inhabitants, and Bobo-Dioulasso with 550,000 inhabitants. The national poverty index is extremely high at 43.9% with the rural population bearing the biggest burden (50.7% poor), hence accelerating the rural–urban migration phenomenon, while the life expectancy stands at 56.7 years. With respect to access to urban services, Burkina Faso is lagging far behind many African countries. In 2009, only 13.9% of the population had access to electricity, 2.3% to sewage network, 19% to formal waste collection and 65.2% to potable water. The annual demand for housing is estimated at 23,000 units in Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso alone while 70.1% of Burkinabe people live in houses made of non-durable material (crude soil or straw). It is reported that 59.5% of the urban population are slum dwellers. Between 2000 and 2009 the country experienced an average economic annual growth rate of 5%. Severe floods hit the country in September 2009 and July 2010, causing damage and casualties in many parts of the country. In ougadougou alone, more than 40,000 houses were destroyed. Since the early 1990s the Government, through political, economic and institutional reforms, has begun to implement decentralisation to promote grassroots development. This process reached a turning point when communalisation was enacted in December 2004 under the Decentralisation Act (Code Général des Collectivités Territoriales). The Act was enforced for the first time during the April 2006 local elections that covered the country’s 351 municipalities (among which only 49 are considered to be urban municipalities) and 13 regions. Despite the willingness of the government to push further the decentralisation process, the fund allocated to the municipalities from the central authorities (Permanent Fund for Local Authorities Development) remains very marginal (only 6.95% of the national budget) and unequally distributed (47.4% of it goes to the two main cities: Ouagadougou and Bobo-Dioulasso). Since mid-2011 three joint missions of Cities Alliance (CA) members have been successively carried out in Burkina Faso, with aim to define the main axes of intervention of a Country-Programme through the interaction with the different stakeholders at both the national and the local levels. In fact Burkina Faso is one of the five pilot countries selected by the Cities Alliance to develop this king of national programmes within the framework of the Land, Services and Citizenship (LSC) programme funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.
This application is a request of a preparation grant to the Cities Alliance by UN-HABITAT to develop in detail the Burkina Faso Country-Programme document; the following 3 specific objectives are defined: 1. To carry out a literature review and to organise individual and group consultations for collecting the necessary information and identifying the existing gaps and needs within each proposed axe of intervention of the Country-Programme, hence understanding more in detail who does what, where and when. 2. To create the conditions so that the Country-Programme to be formulated can act as a catalysing and coordination tool to leverage more funding from CA members and other partners in Burkina Faso for addressing critical urban development issues. 3. To formulate the detail Country-Programme document in the most participatory manner possible with a clear implementation strategy, ensuring the ownership of the national and local authorities, and to present it to all partners for validation once a final draft is ready.
Once the grant is approved the following activities will be carried out, according to a clearly defined methodological approach: 1. Recruitment of one national consultant (for a period of 5 working months) and of one international consultant (during 2 working months spread over a period of 5 months) with the following responsibilities at the different levels: (i) undertake a literature review; (ii) conduct individual interviews; (iii) organise group consultations; the consultants’ main deliverable will be a document describing in detail the Country-Programme. 2. Establishment of a Task-Force Group (TFG) which will facilitate the implementation of the programme preparation phase in order to ensure a participatory approach and the ownership (from the very beginning) of the process by the national/local partners. It is proposed that the TFG is chaired by the Ministry of Housing and Urbanism (MHU) and is composed by the following institutions: the national municipal association (AMBF), the World Bank, one CSO, one academic institution and UN-HABITAT. The TFG will meet regularly and will actively participate in the formulation of the Country-Programme. Each TFG member will be responsible for sharing information with its own “entourage” (e.g. the MHU will share the information with other concerned line ministries; the AMBF with other municipalities, the World Bank with other bi/multilateral donors, the CSO with other CSOs, the academic institution with its own sector and UN-HABITAT with the other CA members). 3. For each axe of intervention, the consultants will have to review relevant documentation dealing with urban issues (existing policies, strategies, action plans, project documents, studies, statistics, etc.) at the different levels; the extracted information will be analysed and synthetically incorporated in the draft Country-Programme document. 4. The consultants will then conduct individual interviews with the different stakeholders intervening on urban matters in Burkina Faso; the objective is to elaborate a simple questionnaire and address the following questions: who does what, where and when? This will allow proposing specific roles to the partners during the phase of implementation of the Country-Programme according to the identified axes. It will be also important to identify, through these interviews (especially with the concerned national and local authorities), which will be the secondary cities that will be supported by this Programme (it is suggested that a maximum of 4 cities, in addition to Ouagadougou, are selected); the criteria for the identification of these cities could be, among others: (i) the annual urban growth; (ii) the municipal capacity to respond to existing urban problems; (iii) the percentage of the population living in informal or non-demarcated neighbourhoods. The stakeholders to be contacted for conducting these individual interviews are, among others: CA Members which are present in Burkina Faso, such as: a) Agence Française de Développement (AFD) b) World Bank c) French Cooperation (French Embassy) d) German Cooperation (GIZ) e) European Union (European Commission Delegation) f) United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) Other non-resident CA members in Burkina Faso: (via phone or Skype) a) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Other relevant partners to the Country-Programme in Burkina Faso, although non-CA members: a) Suisse Cooperation b) United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) National and Local Partners: a) Ministry of Housing and Urbanism (MHU) b) Ministry of Territorial Administration, Decentralisation and Security (MATDS) c) Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) d) Association of the Municipalities of Burkina Faso (AMBF) e) Urban municipalities (Ouagadougou and other secondary cities to be identified) f) Association of the Regions of Burkina Faso (ARBF) g)Representatives of the academic sector h)Representatives of the professional associations i) Representatives of the private sector j) Representatives of NGOs and CSOs 5. Once the 4 secondary cities to be part of the Country-Programme (in addition to Ouagadougou) have been identified, joint field visits have to be carried with representatives of national and local authorities to collect primary information; in particular, it will be important to organise some consultations with the populations of selected informal neighbourhoods (including with the traditional leaders) where demonstrative slum/housing upgrading interventions will be carried out 6. Thanks to the collected information, a first draft of the Country-Programme will be elaborated including the following elements, for each axe of intervention: (i) responsible institution for the coordination of the activities; (ii) rationale; (iii) objective(s) ; (iv) expected results; (v) planned activities; (vi) outputs; (vii) implementation strategy; (viii) stakeholders to be involved; (ix) time frame; and (x) budget. The first draft will also include an overall implementation strategy of the Country-Programme addressing the following needs: a) Establishment of a Programme Steering Committee (PSC) and of a Technical Committee (TC) b) Definition of clear management and operational arrangements and procedures of the Programme (who does what and how) c) Understanding how the activities planned under different axes will interact among themselves, i.e. how to create synergies and collaboration between the 6 axes of int ervention within a coherent and efficient framework d) Establishment of synergies between the Country-Programme and other on-going projects and programmes to increase the harmonisation of the urban interventions in Burkina Faso as well as the possibility to catalyse and leverage additional funding 7. Presentation of the preliminary draft of the Country Programme to the TFG and to the CA Secretariat for comments and suggestions; the proposal will have to be subsequently improved. 8. Organisation of a workshop with all the different partners and stakeholders to present the drafted Country-Programme to collect the final suggestions and recommendations. 9. Finalisation of the Burkina Faso Country-Programme document and official submission to the Cities Alliance.
Expected Impacts and Results
The main expected outcome of this request is the preparation of a CA Country Programme document in Burkina Faso in a participatory and consensus-based approach to ensure ownership of the national/local institutions and maximum support from the CA members and other partners. The process will be monitored by the TFG and the Cities Alliance Secretariat according to the list of deliverables defined in Section 15 and the time frame indicated in Section 21.